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What you need to know the degree of development of the fetus? To avoid this condition, such as intrauterine growth retardation, which in recent years is most often children
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The asymmetric shape is characterized by a delay in height and mass with a normal head circumference .2 mg reviews 1 250 0.5 tablets 0.3 .5 .6 soloxine 0.8. It usually develops in an unfavorable pregnancy in the third trimester
In addition, the intrauterine growth retardation may be accompanied by poor fetal development -. The formation of defects, scars dizembriogeneza, violation of body proportions, physics. This option is called dysplasia and IUGR is the most intelligent
More IUGR can be divided powers :.
Grade 1, when the fetus is lagging behind in development for 2 weeks;
2nd degree - within 2 to 4 weeks ;.
3rd grade - delay of more than four weeks
intrauterine growth can be caused by many different factors, but can be divided into three main groups
the first -. disease directly to the child. Includes:
1) the presence of some chromosomal and genetic disorders characterized by developmental delay;
2) endocrine pathology, such as underactive thyroid gland;
3) intrauterine infection;
4) the direct effect of adverse environmental factors (radiation, drugs)
The second group - the abnormal development of the placenta, which is both easy baby, she . excretory system and body detoxification (removal of hazardous substances).
Pathology of the placenta may be toxemia of pregnancy, with the defeat of the blood vessels of the fetus and placenta, the small size of the placenta or presentation. Pregnancy if a fetus is a prolific supply may lack the placenta and may be IUGR
The third group -. Factors related to maternal health. Almost all mothers of physical illnesses can affect the baby and led to delays in development, but are particularly dangerous in this regard, endocrine diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular and excretory systems. And, of course, bad habits.
Job Management with II degree of inconsistency with the anatomic pelvis narrowed, and the age of women giving birth for the first time over 30 years to finish better operating performance.
cesarean close pelvis is done in cases where it is:
1) an anatomic reduction of the pool of grade III-IV - in this case, the operation is performed planned manner;
2) Clinical offset level II or III with a living fetus;
3) the risk of uterine rupture;
4) the risk of fistula formation (genito-urinary and gastrointestinal sexual);
5) incorrect insertion of the head
If the fetus is dead, the corresponding surgery
Current diagnostic methods basin narrowed anatomically detailed history .. conventional measures (anthropometry, measurement Michaelis diamond index in OB Soloviev internal and external review)
Other Ways :. ultrasound to determine the actual size of the organs of the pelvis with an accuracy of 2 mm. To determine the approximate weight of the fetus, using the formula Lankowitz Jordan Johnson
In the true conjugate used in 4 ways :.
1) in the conjugate diagonal;
2) in the external conjugate;
3) the size of Frank;
4) in the vertical dimension of the rhombus of Michaelis
Diagnosis tight at the antenatal clinic and basin. . accurate diagnosis of pregnancy should be placed in the hospital for two weeks before the due date
Pathology of the placenta
Every woman wants her baby was in good health not the last role in this is played by the placenta - baby in place. It is the organ where the exchange of gases between the blood of the mother and fetus occurs. With it reaches the fetus of nutrients derived metabolic and fetus. The placenta acts as the lungs, digestive system, insulation, etc. .. The placenta also produces hormones -. Gonadotropin, estrogen and progesterone, without which it can not produce a normal pregnancy
The formation of the placenta
the placenta is formed from the egg membrane. Chorionic villus strong growth, in turn, repeatedly tree branch education, within which are the blood vessels. Ultimately capillary loop branches are coated with two layers of epithelium, which facilitates the penetration of gases and nutrients to the fetus and new metabolic products. Located on the cell surface villi, melted obsolete ships. As a result, the tiny hairs are in the intervillous space, which is poured from the blood vessels of the maternal side of the placenta. This blood passes freely between the villi does not clot and not mix with the blood of the fetus. It is here and there is a constant exchange of substances. Externally, the placenta looks like a thick, soft pastel. In late pregnancy, its diameter reaches 15-18 cm, thickness - 2.3 cm, and weight - 500 grams of Parent follower surface of the placenta from the uterine wall, the surface of the fruit on the face amnion cavity (the egg). With the growth and maturation of placenta becomes lobe structure. Fruit surfaces extend radially compliant vessels in the center and pass through the umbilical cord to the fetus. Sometimes the placenta is composed of two or more parties. Sometimes the placenta may be abnormally thin and wide. Sometimes there is a placenta with additional segments connected to the main portion of the container between the shells go. The presence of additional lobes can cause bleeding during childbirth. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the presence of placenta-born vessels ends, indicating that the remaining in the additional lobe of the uterus.
The contact surface of the blood cell intervillous space is about 14 m2. If for some reason this area is reduced, there is fetal hypoxia, where severe disease of the placenta that can result in death.
Normally, the placenta is attached to the upper uterine segment.
The placenta is formed in the third month of pregnancy, before the exchange of gases and nutrients to the fetus occurs directly through the shell. But it should be noted that the placenta and can spend a lot of chemicals: arsenic, mercury, phosphorus, copper, iodine, bromine, alcohol, nicotine, morphine, atropine, antibiotics and other substances. Very many of these substances are toxic to the fetus, which promotes the development of defects, hereditary and genetic diseases; . there is a physical and mental retardation
postnatal development - placenta
From the placenta (placenta) is only necessary for the development of the fetus during pregnancy, after delivery of the fetus also leaves the cavity of the uterus during the third stage of labor - delivery. This period is divided into :.
1) the separation of the placenta and membranes from the uterine wall;
2) of the placenta from the birth canal
The main condition of the placenta is to preserve the normal uterine contractility
After giving light fabric muscle uterine decreases, and the uterus is round shape, the lower part thereof -. navel. Then start wrongs - rhythmic contractions of uterine and abdominal muscles. At that point, there should be no outside intervention (massage, kneading, extrusion), since it may lead to breakage mechanism of normal placenta may cause undesired muscle contraction of the uterus (such as the inner corners of pipe port), causing the detachment of the placenta or uneven incorrect late placenta and separated due to spasm of the internal bore.
Normally, when there is a reduction in the contractions of the uterus after delivery on everything, including the binding site of the placenta (this area is known as the site of the placenta). Because the placenta to reduce capacity, which is offset from the placental site. With each reduction of placenta increasingly separated from the walls of the uterus, as this folds uterine cavity, and then fully exfoliate. . The detachment may occur in two ways: from the center or the
In the first method, the separation of the placenta starts from the center; a lot of blood from the intervillous space - between the breakaway region and the wall of the uterus placental forms. This hematoma reductions also contributes to the separation of the placenta. Gradually all the placenta separates, bulging into the uterine cavity, and then born with shells. In this case, the placenta is delivered to the surface of the fruit forward and backward eggshell. External bleeding begins at the end of this process.
In the second method is first separated from the periphery of the placenta. Placental not occur, the blood from broken blood vessels running between the walls of the uterus and shells - no external bleeding. As we continue to further separate the placenta contractions areas. After complete separation of the placenta and slides down to the bottom edge of the genital tract. Deposits in this case stored in the way they were in the uterus. Usually assigned 150-300 ml of blood, which is physiological and does not represent a risk to the life of the woman. Then cut the muscle fibers compress the vessel lumen and the bleeding stops.
The postpartum period in the normal course of work does not last more than two hours and requires no additional action is necessary to consider the amount of bloodshed and monitor the overall status mothers.
Once the placenta is completely separate to help them out of the matrix. After separation of the placenta from the following:
1) sign Schroeder - fundus rises above the navel in the palm of the hand;
2) a symptom of "hourglass" - the appearance of inflammation of the abdominal wall in the groin;
3) Alfred sign - after separation of the placenta from the umbilical cord descends;
4) an indication of the Klein - force the cable out of the genital slit, and is not drawn and
5) sign Chukalova - Kyustnera -. High pressure in the abdominal wall into the abdomen cord does not retract into the vagina
There are several ways of selecting the separate placenta. First, lift the head and torso of a woman and deliver more. If there is an effect, a method is Abuladze: empty the bladder, make a gentle massage of the uterus, and then take the abdominal wall with both hands in a longitudinal fold and deliver more. If the latter is selected, use a stronger effect - how Lazarevic - pressed against the lower part of the uterus in the direction from top to bottom
Even more powerful (but more dangerous) part - Credit: . After emptying the bladder having a gentle massage to induce uterine then contractions, cover the lower part of the uterus so that the thumb is on the anterior abdominal wall, and the other four - from the rear wall of the uterus, and produce compression, pressing the fundus forward. In this method, the placenta is usually easily.
The placenta carefully inspected for integrity and shells. For this, the placenta is spread over the smooth surface of the breast and each side is examined, the edge of the placenta, not blood vessels are broken off, indicating the presence of additional segments that could be left in the uterus.
If a portion of the placenta remained in the uterus, is facing heavy bleeding, which can be opened after the birth of the placenta, or at a later date. The inspection can be done with a special ball with matt interior lamp. Placenta firing shells at the surface of the mother, and well lit see the edge of the placenta, blood vessels, with the expulsion of the placenta in the shell.
Pathology of the placenta
A type of abnormal development of the placenta is its unique location, called placenta previa. It can be of 4 types:
1) central placenta attaches to the lower uterine segment and region completely covers the internal os of the uterus;
2) when the placenta partially covers the internal cervical area;
a) the limit when the placenta from its edge is the internal orifice of the uterus ,.
r) of the neck, where the placenta is attached directly to the tissues of the cervix
complications of placenta previa is vaginal bleeding, which can occur during pregnancy and childbirth .
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